Brookings Scholars 2012-2013

Scholars from all five Brookings research areas — Metropolitan Policy, Economic Studies, Governance Studies, Foreign Policy, and Global Economy and Development — will spend a total of three weeks a year per program in residence at UNLV. During their visits, they will conduct research, deliver lectures, and meet with university faculty, students, and community leaders.

John P. Banks

Nonresident Fellow, Foreign Policy, Energy Security Initiative

John P. Banks specializes in working with governments, companies and regulators in establishing and strengthening policies, institutions, and regulatory frameworks that promote sustainable energy sectors, with a particular focus on emerging markets and electricity. He has worked in over 20 countries. Mr. Banks is also an adjunct professor for electricity markets at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and for energy policy at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.


  • September 24-28, 2012

Charles K. Ebinger

Director, Energy Security Initiative, Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy

Charles Ebinger has more than 35 years of experience specializing in international and domestic energy markets (oil, gas, coal and nuclear) and the geopolitics of energy, with a particular focus on the Middle East, South Asia, Africa., the Arctic and Antarctic. Ebinger has served as an energy policy advisor to over 50 governments on restructuring their state-owned energy sectors, privatization and the creation of regulatory regimes. He is an adjunct professor of electricity economics at Johns Hopkins Nitze School.


  • October 15-20, 2012

William Frey

William H. Frey is an internationally regarded demographer, known for his research on urban populations, migration, immigration, race, aging, political demographics and his expertise on the U.S. Census. Frey’s demographic expertise draws from his nearly three decades at the University of Michigan where he is on the faculty of the University’s Institute for Social Research and Population Studies Center. He has authored well over 200 publications and several books including Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the US (Russell Sage, 1988, with Alden Speare, Jr); America By the Numbers: A Fieldguide to the US Population (The New Press, 2001 with Bill Abresch and Jonathan Yeasting), and Social Atlas of the United States (Allyn and Bacon, 2008 with Amy Beth Anspach and John Paul DeWitt). At Michigan, he has directed projects with the National Science Foundation, NICHD Center for Population Research, and several foundations. He has contributed to the 1995 President’s National Urban Policy Report, to HUD’s State of the Cities 2000 report, and to the Russell Sage Foundation’s Census research series. He has been a consultant to the US Census Bureau, and a contributing editor to American Demographics magazine.

Frey has also been active in creating demographic media for use by educators, policy makers and the general public. Examples are the websites:;; and Frey received a Ph.D. in sociology from Brown University in 1974. He has been a Visiting Research Scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria); the Andrew W. Mellon, Research Scholar at the Population Reference Bureau in Washington, DC, and the Hewlett Visiting Scholar at Child Trends in Washington, DC. He previously held positions at Rutgers University, the University of Washington- Seattle, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the State University of New York at Albany. He is a member of the Population Association of America, the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, the American Sociological Association, and is a past Fellow of the Urban Land Institute. Frey is also known for his ability to communicate demographic trends to general and policy audiences. His research been written about in such diverse venues as The Economist, The New York Times Magazine, The New Republic, The National Journal, The New Yorker and Forbes. His commentary and observations have been featured on broadcast media including National Public Radio’s All Things Considered , PBS’s NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, and print media including The New York Times, The Washington Post, USA Today and The Wall Street Journal.


  • February 4-8, 2012
  • April 22-26, 2012

Allan A. Friedman

Fellow, Governance Studies, Research Director, Center for Technology Innovation

Allan Friedman is a fellow in Governance Studies and research director of the Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings. His current research focuses on information technology policy, with particular emphasis on cybersecurity policy and the dynamics of information privacy.

Prior to joining Brookings, Friedman was a fellow at the Center for Research on Computation and Society in the Harvard Computer Science department, where he worked on cyber security policy, privacy-enhancing technologies and the economics of information security. Friedman was also a fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, where he worked on the Minerva Project for Cyber International Relations.

He has a degree in Computer Science from Swarthmore College (2002), and a PhD in Public Policy from Harvard University (2009).


  • January 28 – February 1, 2013

Clifford Gaddy

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy

Clifford Gaddy, an economist specializing in Russia, holds a joint appointment as senior fellow in Brookings’ Foreign Policy Studies Program (where he is a member of the Center on the United States and Europe) and Brookings’ Global Economy and Development Program. He is also a co-founder and senior scientific advisor of the joint Russian-American Center for Research on International Financial and Energy Security (CRIFES), based at Penn State University. He is most recently the co-author of two books: Mr. Putin: Operative in the Kremlin (with Fiona Hill) and Bear Traps on Russia’s Road to Modernization (with Barry W. Ickes, to appear in May 2013). His earlier books include The Siberian Curse: How Communist Planners Left Russia Out in the Cold (with Fiona Hill); Russia's Virtual Economy (with Barry Ickes); The Price of the Past: Russia's Struggle with the Legacy of a Militarized Economy; and Open for Business: Russia’s Return to the Global Economy (with Ed A. Hewett). Gaddy earned his Ph.D. in economics from Duke University. He has held teaching and research positions at Duke, Georgetown University, and Johns Hopkins University. He has traveled widely in Russia and been a guest scholar at various research institutes in the country, including the Institute for Economic Forecasting (Moscow), the Kostroma Agricultural Institute, and the Perm Technology Research Center. In the mid-1990s he was an advisor to the Russian finance ministry and regional governments on issues of fiscal federalism for the U.S. Government’s Tax Reform Oversight Project for Russia.

Tracy Gordon

Tracy Gordon is a Fellow in Economic Studies. She is also an affiliated scholar with the Urban Institute-Brookings Institution Tax Policy Center. Her research is in state and local budgeting and public finance, political economy, and urban economics. Before joining Brookings, Gordon was an Assistant Professor in the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park. She was also a research fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she is now an adjunct fellow. She holds a Ph.D. in public policy with a concurrent M.A. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley.

Gordon has authored reports and journal articles on state and local budgeting, local property taxes, the local initiative process, and so-called "private governments" or common interest developments. Some recent publications include: "The Federal Stimulus Programs and Their Effects," (with Gary Burtless) in The Great Recession, David B. Grusky, Bruce Western, and Christopher Wimer eds. (Russell Sage Foundation, forthcoming), "State and Local Fiscal Institutions in Recession and Recovery," in Oxford Handbook on State & Local Government Finance, Robert Ebel and John Petersen eds. (Oxford University Press, forthcoming), and "State and Local Government Finances: Where We’ve Been, Where We’re Going, and How to Get There," National Tax Association Papers and Proceedings, 2011.


  • September 17-21, 2012

Carol Graham

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Global Economy and Development, Charles Robinson Chair in Foreign Policy Studies

Carol Graham’s research focuses on poverty, inequality, public health, and novel measures of well-being. Her projects have included a focus on the developing world.

She is the author of Happiness around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires (Oxford University Press, forthcoming); Happiness and Hardship: Opportunity and Insecurity in New Market Economies (with Stefano Pettinato, Brookings, 2002); Private Markets for Public Goods: Raising the Stakes in Economic Reform (Brookings, 1998); Safety Nets, Politics and the Poor: Transitions to Market Economies (Brookings, 1994); Peru's APRA (Lynne Rienner, 1992); Improving the Odds: Political Strategies for Institutional Reform in Latin America, with Merilee Grindle, Eduardo Lora, and Jessica Seddon (IDB, 1999); and A Half Penny on the Dollar: The Future of Development Aid, with Michael O'Hanlon (Brookings, 1997). She is the editor, with Eduardo Lora, of Paradox and Perceptions: Quality of Life in Latin America (Brookings, 2009); with Susan Collins, of the Brookings Trade Forum 2004: Globalization, Poverty, and Inequality (Brookings, 2005); and, with Nancy Birdsall, of New Markets, New Opportunities? Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World (Brookings/Carnegie, 1999), and Beyond Trade-Offs: Market Reforms and Equitable Growth in Latin America (Brookings/IDB, 1988). She is also the author of articles in journals including the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, the World Bank Research Observer, Health Affairs, the Journal of Socio-Economics, World Economics, and Foreign Affairs.

Graham served as Vice President and Director of Governance Studies at Brookings from 2002-2004. She has also served as a Special Advisor to the Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. She has also been a consultant at the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, United Nations Development Program, and the Harvard Institute for International Development, helping to design safety net programs in Latin America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. She has testified in Congress several times on the economic situation in Latin America, and has discussed related topics on NBC News, National Public Radio, the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, and CNN among others. Her research has received support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Tinker and Hewlett Foundations. She was awarded a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellowship for 1997-98, during which time she served as Special Adviser to the Executive Vice President of the Inter-American Development Bank. Graham, born in Lima, Peru, has an A.B. from Princeton University, an M.A. from The Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, and a Ph.D. from Oxford University. She is the mother of three children.


  • October 29 – November 2, 2012
  • February 18-22, 2013

Ross A. Hammond

Ross A. Hammond is a senior fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution, where he is director of the Center on Social Dynamics and Policy. His primary area of expertise is modeling complex dynamics of social, economic, political and public health systems using mathematical and agent-based computational methods. His current research topics include obesity, behavioral epidemiology, corruption and anti-corruption policies, ethnocentrism and inter-group relations, and the dynamics of trust.

Hammond received his B.A. in Economics and Political Science from Williams College, and his Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Michigan. He has authored or co-authored numerous scholarly publications, on a wide range of topics, in journals such as Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Evolution, Theoretical Population Biology, Preventing Chronic Disease, PLOS One, and Complexity. His work has been featured in New Scientist magazine, Salon and The Atlantic Monthly. Hammond serves on the editorial board of the journal Childhood Obesity and on the steering committee for the Comparative Modeling Network of the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (a joint venture of NIH, USDA and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). Hammond has previously been the Okun-Model fellow in economics at Brookings, an NSF IGERT IDEAS fellow in the Center for the Study of Complex Systems at the University of Michigan, a visiting scholar at The Santa Fe Institute, and a consultant at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.


  • November 26-30, 2012

John Hudak

As of the Summer 2012, John Hudak will be a Fellow in the Governance Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. He has received several grants and awards including a National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant, a Social Science Dissertation Fellowship at Vanderbilt University and a Founders Award, awarded by the American Political Science Association's Presidency Research Group for the best paper presented by a graduate student on the presidency in the previous year. 2011 Westview Press Award, awarded by the Midwest Political Science Association for the best paper presented by a graduate student at the 2010 annual meeting. Hudak received his Ph.D (May 2012) in Political Science from Vanderbilt University.


  • March 11-15, 2013

Bruce Jones

Director, Managing Global Order, Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy

Bruce Jones is director of the Managing Global Order initiative, a senior fellow at Brookings and director of the Center on International Cooperation at New York University. His research focuses on U.S. policy on global order and transnational threats, international conflict management, and fragile states.

Domenico Lombardi

Domenico Lombardi is president of The Oxford Institute for Economic Policy and senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. Dr. Lombardi is a member of the Financial Times Forum of Economists. He serves as a managing editor of the World Economics Journal and advises leading organizations that shape the public policy debate worldwide, including the Bretton Woods Committee, the G20 Research Group, the G8 Research Group and the Institute for International Affairs. He is a member of the board of directors of New Rules for Global Finance.

He has previously been a member of the executive boards of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Dr. Lombardi's academic interests focus on the global economy and currencies, global governance, the G20, the G8, the European economies, and the reform of the international financial and monetary system. His research has been published in several peer-reviewed journals and has been referred to in congressional hearings and government reports. In 2010, he was appointed by the World Bank Group’s Board of Directors as the External Reviewer to conduct the Independent Review of the Group’s Oversight and Accountability Units. A year earlier, Dr. Lombardi authored the Report to the IMF Managing Director on IMF Governance Reform ("Fourth Pillar Report"), which he presented before the Fund’s Executive Directors.

His latest books include Asia and Policymaking for the Global Economy, with Kemal Dervi, and Masahiro Kawai, published in April 2011 by the Brookings Institution Press, and Finance, Development, and the IMF, with James Boughton, released from Oxford University Press in 2009. Dr. Lombardi is a regular commentator for the international press, including the Financial Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post, for the global newswires Bloomberg and Reuters, as well as for major TV networks like BBC, CNN and Fox News. He has an undergraduate degree in Financial Economics from Bocconi University, Milan, and he did his postgraduate studies at Harvard University, The London School of Economics and Oxford University (Nuffield College), from which he holds a Ph.D. in Economics.


  • April 1-5, 2013

Joshua Meltzer

Joshua Meltzer is a fellow in the Global Economy and Development program at the Brookings Institution. He is an expert on the intersection between climate change and international trade and the relationship between trade and U.S. competitiveness—particularly with regard to U.S. trade with key economies such as China, India, Japan and the European Union. His research interests also include a range of issues related to the World Trade Organization and free trade agreements, such as the treatment and promotion of trade in energy.

Prior to joining Brookings in November 2010, Joshua Meltzer was first secretary for trade policy at the Australian Embassy in Washington, D.C. At the Australian Embassy, he focused on climate change and energy issues, particularly with respect to their trade-related aspects. He was also responsible for intellectual property and the trade and environment issues in the Doha Round. Meltzer has also worked in the Office of Trade Negotiations in the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, where he was a trade negotiator for Australia's free trade agreement negotiations with Malaysia and ASEAN/New Zealand. He was also responsible for providing the Australian government with legal advice on its commitments under its FTAs, including the Australia-U.S. FTA.

Meltzer has also interned in the Legal Affairs Division at the WTO and the United Nations International Law Commission. Recent publications include an analysis of international investment law in free trade agreements and an examination of the extent to which state sovereignty can legitimize the WTO. Meltzer holds degrees from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia as well as an S.J.D. and LL.M. from the University of Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor.


  • November 13-16, 2012

Adele Morris

Fellow, Economic Studies, Policy Director for Climate and Energy Economics, Economic Studies

Adele Morris is a fellow and policy director for climate and energy economics. She focuses on the economics of climate change and related energy.

She joined Brookings in July 2008 from the Joint Economic Committee (JEC) of the U.S. Congress, where she spent a year as a Senior Economist covering energy and climate issues. Before the JEC, Adele served nine years with the U.S. Treasury Department as its chief natural resource economist, working on climate, energy, agriculture, and radio spectrum issues. On assignment to the U.S. Department of State in 2000, she was the lead U.S. negotiator on land use and forestry issues in the international climate change treaty process. Prior to joining the Treasury, she served as the senior economist for environmental affairs at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers during the development of the Kyoto Protocol. She began her career at the Office of Management and Budget, where she conducted regulatory oversight of agriculture and natural resource agencies. She holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Princeton University, an M.S. in Mathematics from the University of Utah, and a B.A. from Rice University.


  • October 21-25, 2012

Steven Pifer

Steven Pifer is a senior fellow at the Brookings Center on the United States and Europe and director of the Brookings Arms Control Initiative. He focuses on arms control, Russia and Ukraine. He has offered commentary regarding Russia, Ukraine and arms control issues on CNN, Fox News, CNBC, BBC, National Public Radio and VOA, and his articles have appeared in the Washington Post, International Herald Tribune and Boston Globe, among others. A retired Foreign Service Officer, his more than 25 years with the State Department focused on U.S. relations with the former Soviet Union and Europe, as well as arms control and security issues. He served as deputy assistant secretary of state in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs with responsibilities for Russia and Ukraine (2001-2004), U.S. ambassador to Ukraine (1998-2000), and special assistant to the president and senior director for Russia, Ukraine and Eurasia on the National Security Council (1996-1997). In addition to Ukraine, he served at the U.S. embassies in Warsaw, Moscow and London as well as with the U.S. delegation to the negotiation on intermediate-range nuclear forces in Geneva.

Ambassador Pifer's publications include "Reversing the Decline: An Agenda for U.S.-Russian Relations in 2009," Brookings paper (January 2009); "Ukraine’s Geopolitical Choice, 2009," Eurasian Geography and Economics (July 2009); "New START: Good News for U.S. Security," Arms Control Today (May 2010); "The Next Round: The United States and Nuclear Arms Reductions After New START," Brookings Arms Control Series Paper #4 (November 2010); and "The Trilateral Process: The United States, Ukraine, Russia and Nuclear Weapons," Brookings Arms Control Series Paper #6 (May 2011).


  • October 8-12, 2012

Audrey Singer

Senior Fellow, Metropolitan Policy Program

Demographer Audrey Singer is an expert on international migration, race and ethnicity, U.S. immigration policy, and demographic trends in metropolitan areas.

Her recent co-edited book, Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America focuses on the fastest growing immigrant populations among second-tier metropolitan areas.

Other recent Brookings publications include, "State of Metropolitan America: on the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation," "Immigrants, Politics, and Local Response in Suburban Washington," "Recent Immigration to Philadelphia: Regional Change in a Re-Emerging Gateway," "From ‘Here’ to ‘There:’ Refugee Resettlement in Metropolitan America."

Her articles have appeared in academic journals including International Migration Review, Demography, Urban Geography, Geographical Review, and Ethnic and Racial Studies, and her commentary in the New York Times, Washington Post, Baltimore Sun, Christian Science Monitor, Seattle Times, Huffington Post, San Diego Union Tribune, and Vanguardia Dossier.

Prior to joining Brookings, Singer was an associate in the International Migration Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Prior to Carnegie, she held a faculty position in the Department of Demography at Georgetown University, and was a demographic analyst at the U.S. Department of Labor. She is the current elected chair of the International Migration Section of the American Sociological Association.

Singer earned a Ph.D. in sociology, with a specialization in demography, from the University of Texas at Austin. She has an M.A. in sociology also from the University of Texas at Austin and a B.A. in sociology from Temple University. She conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Chicago.


  • February 25 - March 1, 2013

Philip Wallach

Philip A. Wallach is a fellow in Governance Studies. His current research focuses on institutional aspects of fiscal policy and regulation, including financial regulation and climate change policy, as well as the legal aspects of the recent financial crisis.

Since joining Brookings, Wallach's research has covered a variety of topics. He has chronicled the development of America's climate change policies under the Clean Air Act, examining the role of courts in forcing a reinterpretation of the Act. He has studied the changing application of the Glass-Steagall Act by banking regulators, arguing that calls for a revival of the law rarely take into account the historical experience with it. Most recently, he has analyzed the federal debt ceiling, explaining its origin and arguing that threats not to raise it are a particularly ineffective means of restraining federal spending.

Wallach's current research includes studies of federal budgeting institutions, the necessary conditions for effective fiscal leadership, and an investigation of the rule of law implications of policy responses to the financial crisis. Wallach received a B.A. from the College of Social Studies at Wesleyan University and a Ph.D. in Politics from Princeton University.


  • March 18-22, 2013