### Research Interests

Mark Ashcraft investigates issues in mathematical cognition, asking questions such as "What do people know about numbers, arithmetic, and math?" and "How do we learn math?" His research examines the mental processes that people use to solve math problems, from answering basic facts (e. g., 2 + 3 = ?) to more complex problems that include procedures such as carrying or borrowing (e. g., 231 - 178 = ?). To examine the development of these skills and abilities, his research includes school-age children, adolescents, and adults. A second, related area of his research investigates how math skills and attitudes influence those mental processes. Specifically, he examines the influence of motivation, experience, and anxiety on math performance (e. g., Do math anxious individuals not learn as efficiently, or are their difficulties limited to performance situations?). In addition to these topics, another research interest of Dr. Ashcraft is in the area of federal regulation of human subjects research.

Dr. Ashcraft's 1975 Ph.D. is in cognitive psychology from the University of Kansas.

### Selected Publications

Moore, A. M., Rudig, N. O., & Ashcraft, M. H. (in press). Affect, Motivation, Working Memory, and Mathematics. In R. Cohen & A. Dowker (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition.

Moore, A. M., & Ashcraft, M. H. (in press). Affect, Emotion, and Mathematics. To appear in C. Mohiyeddini, M. Eysenck, & S. Bauer (Eds.), The Psychology of Emotions. Nova Press.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Moore, A. M. (2012). Cognitive processes of numerical estimation in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 246-267.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Rudig, N. O. (2012). Higher cognition is altered by non-cognitive factors: How affect enhances and disrupts mathematics performance in adolescence and young adulthood. In V. F. Reyna, S. Chapman, M. Dougherty, & J. Confrey (Eds.), The Adolescent Brain: Learning, Reasoning, and Decision Making (pp. 243-263). Washington, D. C.: APA.

Steiner, E. T., & Ashcraft, M. H. (2012). Three brief assessments of math achievement. Behavior Research Methods. DOI: 10.3758/sl3428-011-0185-6.

Moore, A. M., & Ashcraft, M. H. (2012). Mathematics anxiety. Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development (pp. 1-8). London, ON: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Moore, A. M. (2009). Mathematics anxiety and the affective drop in performance. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27, 197-205.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Guillaume, M. M. (2009). Mathematical cognition and the problem size effect. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 51, pp. 121-154). Burlington: Academic Press/Elsevier.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Krause, J. A. (2007). Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 243-248.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Krause, J. A. (2007). Social and behavioral researchers' experiences with their IRBs. Ethics & Behavior, 17, 1-17.

Ashcraft, M. H., Krause, J. A., & Hopko, D. R. (2007). Is math anxiety a mathematics learning disability? In D. B. Berch & M. M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.), Why is math so hard for some children? The nature and origins of mathematical difficulties and disabilities (pp. 329-348). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Ashcraft, M. H., & Ridley, K. S. (2005). Math anxiety and its cognitive consequences. In J. I. D. Campbell (Ed.), Handbook of mathematical cognition (pp. 315-327). New York: Psychology Press.